Addi, Lahouari. “The Multiparty System in Algeria.” Paper presented at Yale University’s conference on The Politics of Dissent in North Africa, New Haven, Connecticut, February 20-22, 2009.
Blondel, Jean. “Types of Party Systems.” In The West European Party System, edited by Peter Mair. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990.
Farrell, David M. Comparing Electoral Systems. London: Macmillan, 1998.
Katz, Richard, and Peter Mair. Party Organizations: A Data Handbook on Party Organizations in Western Democracies, 1960–1990. London: Sage Publications, 1992.
The Federalist Papers (see especially Federalist No. 10 by James Madison).
Ottaway, Marina and Amr Hamzawy. “Fighting on Two Fronts: Secular Parties in the Arab World.” Carnegie Papers 85 (May 2007).
“Political Party” in Encyclopaedia Britannica (full article).
“Political Parties,” chapter 8 in Outline of U.S. Government, at the International Information Programs of the U.S. State Department
State Department “Background Notes.”